Running Analysis & Technology

We’re always keen to provide runners with the best opportunity to understand more about running and specifically how runners run. We love using technology and combined with assessment this works well for helping runners to get over injury and improve performance. As a team of techno geeks, imagine our delight when we got our hands on DorsaVi. A wearable device that AAEAAQAAAAAAAAOEAAAAJGEyYTk4ODA1LWZhMzctNGNjNy1iZTVkLTMwZTkxOWRiNDE4ZQrunners or teams can use to monitor kinetic running data & kinematic knee data to understand the loads and biomechanics of the athlete.

Wearable devices have been used for several years in sport specifically HR monitors & GPS trackers used to monitor load, distance and intensity of players, both in training and competition situations. Even though new evidence is being published to help us understand that training loads are one factor linked to injury, this study from expert Gabbett is particularly comprehensive [Gabbett. 2007].

It’s become more complex to measure biomechanics in the field of play because we need 3D motion capture to fully assess motion in team sports, which is unpredictable in many team sports [Willy, 2017]. The assessment of biomechanics in runners within any sporting environment is extremely difficult, hence the advent of such technologies that help assess movement naturally are welcomed by us.

Running

What we we look for?

Ground Reaction Force [GRF] – The force created by contact with the ground is referred to as the ground reaction force (GRF). This is the force the ground exerts on the body as we move.  According to Newton, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction [Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion – Law of Reaction]. As we make contact with the ground, gravity is constantly impacting the body [Young-Hoo Kwon, 1998: http://www.kwon3d.com/theory/grf/grf.html].ViMOve

Initial Peak Acceleration [IPA] – Correlates the vertical acceleration and loading rate through the tibia on ground contact, measured in G’s. The IPA being increased has been linked to higher rates of stress fractures [Crowell, 2011] and changes can be noted with alterations in cadence [Rios et al, 2010]. This graph illustrates these measurements nicely [DorsaVi ViMove2, Running Module Guide].

Cadence calculates steps per minute, two steps make up one stride. Recent research indicates shortening stride length and increases in cadence can help to reduce running injuries [https://www.runresearchjunkie.com/is-the-180-cadence-a-myth-or-something-to-aim-for/].

Absolute Symmetry Index [ASI] – is the calculation of average GRF Left vs Right. An example in DorsaVi would be a negative value indicates the right side is carrying more force compared to left.  A positive values shows left side is accepting more force than the right side. A normal deviation in ASI is 5% so we would want to reduce this whilst running [Herzog et al, 1989].

Speed – Looks at average speed over the course of the running time measured, usually measured in metres per second [m/s].

 

Everybody runs differently and this is dependent on multiple factors including:

1. Activity participation [distance runners, sprinters, team sports]

2. Running surface, environment & terrain [surface type, inclination, weather]

3. Running footwear

4. Position within a team or squad [defender Vs attacker]

5. Level of activity participation [elite Vs recreational]

 

What happens when these factors change?

Sports physio Paddy volunteered to test out the DorsaVi. We looked at his existing running style and implemented changes in order to measure the differences in kinetics data.

Within 15 minutes, we were able to assess Paddy clinically and on the treadmill. We looked at Paddy running at 9km/hr, 12km/hr & 16 km/hr. At each assessment, Paddy changed something in his gait to see what changes we noted in his kinetic data. The difficult question is, does kinetic data correlate to kinematics?

As the overview graph illustrates, Paddy completed 3 runs at 9 km/hr but what we can’t see from the graph is what kinematics changed.

  1. Rep 1 at 9 km/hr Paddy was running his normal gait pattern with no problems reported.
  2. Rep 2 at 9 km/hr Paddy changed his foot strike pattern which resulted in a reduction in cadence
  3. Rep 3 at 9 km/hr paddy attempted to shorten stride length and increase cadence
  4. Rep 4 at 12 km/hr increased speed which initially he achieved by increasing his cadence
  5. Rep 5 at 12 km/hr Paddy maintained his speed and his cadence settled to 173.
  6. Rep 6 at 16 km/hr we noted a huge ASI change which correlates to a previous lower limb injury Paddy has suffered on his right side. Increased IPA & GRF despite GCT becoming more symmetrical compared to previous speeds.

Conclusions

Overall, the DorsaVi running module kit is a game changer for us. It is portable and ease of use on the iPad. I would recommend it as suitable for all types, levels and style of runners. We only explored the running module in this article but the knee and lumbar spine assessment modules are great additions to any clinical assessment. The smart therapist would with clinical information, training information along with goal setting to get results with patients and athletes. The versatility of DorsaVi means its suitable for everyone not just sports people.

I’m yet to see any normal data ranges for athletes with GRF, IPA and GCT but differences in assessment and correlation can lead us to make assumptions – if the data supports the hypothesis of injury, then it can be used to change running gait, ultimately reduce pain and improve performance.

However, one question remains in my mind which I’ve not seen in research yet – Does kinetic data correlate to kinematics?

Thanks for reading.

Twitter: @taphysio

Instagram: @taphysio

 

References:

Gabbett & Domrow. (2007). Relationships between training load, injury, and fitness in sub-elite collision sport athletes. Journal of sports sciences. 25. 1507-19. 10.1080/02640410701215066.

Young-Hoo Kwon. (1998). Webite: http://www.kwon3d.com/theory/grf/grf.html. Accessed December 2017

Harrison Philip Crowell and Irene S. Davis. (2011). Gait Retraining to Reduce Lower Extremity Loading in Runners. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2011 Jan; 26(1): 78–83.

Jaqueline Lourdes Rios, Mário Cesar de Andrade, Aluisio Otavio Vargas Avila. Analysis of Peak Tibial Acceleration During Gait in Different Cadences. Human Movement 2, December 1, 2010.

HerzogNiggReadOlson . (1989). Asymmetries in group reaction force patterns in normal human gait. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 21: 110114

Baggaley, Willy, Meardon. (2017). Primary and secondary effects of real‐time feedback to reduce vertical loading rate during running. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 27 (5), 501-507

Marathon Tips – Roger Kerry

Going the distance

Marathon season has begun and this weekend it’s the iconic London Marathon. Well done to everyone who is competing on getting this far, and the very best of luck – particularly if you’re beach runningplanning to attempt it dressed in a hot, heavy and generally unsuitable fancy dress costume!

Leading expert Roger Kerry, of the Division of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences in the School of Health Sciences, believes from a physiotherapist’s view that running the marathon will be about three things: performing well; not getting injured; and most of all – having fun! Here are his top 10 tips for getting the most out of your London Marathon experience…

  1. Prepare – It’s too late now to think about more training, but you should prepare properly for the day in all other respects. Make sure you have checked all your kit at least the day before, and that all your food and drinks are organised in good time – there’ll be no time to dash to Runners Need on Sunday morning.
  1. Taper – The evidence behind tapering (progressively lowering your mileage leading up to the event) is a bit hit-and-miss. However, for a long race, basic principles of exercise suggest that it is not a great idea to be cramming in long or hard sessions the week before the race. Start to relax and do just what you need to keep you motivated and active, but not much more. At this stage, noting will change your fitness in time for Sunday.
  1. Eat – You need the right type and right amount of fuel for Sunday. Start to think about that now, but don’t do anything that your body isn’t used to. Avoid strategies with inconsistent evidence, like dramatic ‘carbo-loading’. Make sure you have wholesome, simple complex-carbohydrates the night before – plenty of brown rice or pasta, supplemented with dried fruit etc. Before an intense, prolonged effort, progress towards at least 10g of carbohydrate per kilogram of bodyweight in the days leading up to Sunday.
  1. Drink – Again, the golden rule: don’t do anything your body isn’t used to. You obviously need to be well hydrated before, during, and after the race. However, over-hydration can be just as (if not more) problematic that dehydration, so you don’t need to guzzle 3 pints of water every few hundred yards. Aim for no more than 0.8 litres of fluid/hour. You will need carbs to keep you going as well, so if you’re used to a specific sports drink or gel, than use that, but don’t start experimenting during the race though!
  1. Shoes – Don’t run in new shoes! Make sure your socks are fitted well, with no small creases or seams. A tiny crease at the start will seem like a boulder at 10 miles, and increase your chance of blistering. Make sure your heel is captured well, but remember that in a long run your forefoot will expand, so avoid ultra-tight lacing in your lower laces. Use thick, or double-layer socks, or Vaseline, to reduce chance of blistering. Use plasters is you’re used to them – again, nothing new please!  

  1. Warm-up – OK, so in 26 miles there’s plenty of time to warm-up, however, it is still absolutely sensible to make sure your muscles are ready for action and your vital organs are ready to be stressed. Do some gentle, progressive running or drills to get ready and try and keep moving on the start-line. The evidence for stretching (especially static stretching) or massage suggest that these don’t help in either performance of injury prevention, so you’re better off spending your time moving and preparing your tissues for load.
  1. Pace yourself – The crowd will most likely prevent you from sprinting off, but aim for negative splits, i.e. the first half of the race being slower paced than the last half. Use your GPS if you need to, but better still, listen to your body. Have confidence in all that fantastic training you have done, and know that you can achieve your marathon aim if you don’t stray too far from what your body is used to.
  1. Keep control – In line with the point above, consider strategies to put in place when you start to fade. Going through rough patches is normal, even if your fitness and fuel control is in order. It’s what you do during these patches that’s important. Try not to get worried about a drop in your pace. If you do, you will try and speed up at a time when your body and mind is asking you not to. Rather, try and focus on your form: work from top to bottom – recalibrate your head posture and your shoulder height, make sure your torso is not slumping and affecting your breathing, make sure your arm swing is even and synched with your leg movements, keep control around your pelvis, shorten your stride length and/or increase cadence, and think about your foot strike. You’ll soon be back in the zone!
  1. Finish strong – Let the crowd motivate you during the last few miles, but don’t blow up before the finish line! You have put in months of training, and this is where it all comes together. Make sure you save something for that last kilometre. You might get a bit of euphoria with two or three miles to go, but avoid that last burst until the finish line is in sight.
  1. Re-fuel, refresh, and reflect – You’ve done it! 26.2 miles in the bag, and an amazing london-marathon-the-mallexperience. But it doesn’t stop here. How you feel for the next few days, and whether you remain motivated to ever do this again will depend on what to do in the few hours post-race. You will need to gradually take on some replenishing carbs and protein, and get your hydration status balanced, considering electrolyte also. Again, stretching or massage won’t necessarily help the recovery process, and may in fact contribute to a delayed recovery. A sensible reduction in tissue load, whilst maintain some movement is key for that next 72 hours. That means keep your legs moving, as long as they are comfortable. You can expect to introduce steady running again after a few days. No hard sessions for a good three weeks or so though. And finally, reflect on your experience to maximise your enjoyment as well as learn from it – for next time!

We have a physiotherapy service available for injury reviews, sports massage & running related advice at Tom Astley Physiotherapy. Sessions can be bookd online HERE.

Part 2: Beginners Outdoor Training

Hello, welcome back, so how did you get on with your first taste of outdoor training?

Courtesy of Nike Women Outdoors
Courtesy of Nike Women Outdoors

The time has come to move things along and challenge the system a little more. So I’m going to outline the next level with a new set of exercises. Each one will be slightly more advanced than the previous set but similar movement patterns.
As usual begin with your pulse raiser, run, cycle, light jog. Remember it’s only a pulse raiser so nice and easy. Once you’ve picked your spot begin your dynamic stretches. This session will follow a similar course as the previous one so you can stick with the same warm-up.

So to recap:

Dynamic warm-up: Heal kicks to bum, high knee run, high kicks (opposite leg to opposite hand), walking lunges, hamstring stretch, light squats. Finish off with arm swings (windmill motion) and hip rotation. A dynamic warm-up can be what ever you want, as long as it replicates your session.

Session: 20/25 minutes

We’ll do five exercises and three sets. As before if you feel you can tackle 4 then go for it but maybe for the first few sessions start with 3 and build from there. Mark out a 20 metre area for your jog/run as before (which will follow each exercise). You maybe already at the level where you can increase the distance or better still be able to sprint there and back.

1. Split squat x 10 reps per leg (20 metre run there and back)

Split Squat
Split Squat

Stand with one foot in front of the other, split stance, feet pointing forward. Torso nice and upright. Bend at the knees and pulse down until your back knee almost touches the floor. Your front knee should be nicely inline with your front foot. After 10 reps swap legs

2. Reverse lunge x 10 per leg (Run)

Reverse Lunge
Reverse Lunge

Much the same as a forward lunge only in reverse. Take a big step back bending both knees until they are at 90 degrees. Drive back through the heel and push forward. Then repeat on the opposite leg

3. Spider-man press up x 10 (Run)

Spider Man Press Up
Spider Man Press Up

Begin this exercise much in the same way as the traditional press-up. Arms directly under the shoulders, lower until elbows are pointing behind you. As you lower to the ground bend one knee to bring it up to your elbow. As you press back up your leg returns to start position. Repeat with opposite leg. Do five leg raises on each side

4. Single leg squat thrust x 20 (Run)

Single Leg Squat Thrust
Single Leg Squat Thrust

Start in the usual press-up position, body straight. Bring one knee forward under your chest. Jump one leg forward and one leg back at the same time. Alternate as quickly as you can

5. Reverse Bear crawl (begin at start point and crawl 20 metres, then run back)

Reverse Bear Crawl
Reverse Bear Crawl

Get down on all fours. Place one hand and opposite foot backwards and walk. Changing sides as you go. This is a little bit harder than walking forward and should really test your endurance. Once you finish, if you can, crawl (forward) back!

On completion of your first set rest for the usual 90 secs then go again. Hopefully with a few weeks under your belt you should be able to slowly cut down your recovery time. Once you’ve completed your 3 sets go for a light warm-down jog around the park for about 5 mins. Follow this with your usual static stretch, remembering to focus on all the big muscle groups, quads, hamstrings, calves, glutes, groin and hip flexors. Finishing with some arm stretches.
Like before I’ve set a fairly low rep rate to begin with. As you get used to the new set of exercises you’ll soon be adding extra reps and sets onto your routine. As a bit of variation mix up your session by adding in the odd exercise from our previous list. It keeps your body guessing and avoids getting too used to the same movement patterns. It’s also more fun. Look to do this set at least twice a week but three times will really get you moving and closer to your fitness goals.

Remember these exercises are all about quality and not quantity. Always focus on your form and posture.

Good luck and look forward to our next set of exercises as we progress forward.

Level 3 PT- Outdoor Training Specialist. Chris Watson
Level 3 PT- Outdoor Training Specialist. Chris Watson

**Please note this programme is designed if you already have a basic level of fitness. Any medical problems or injuries please seek professional advice before attempting this session**

Part 1: Beginners Outdoor Training

Now you’ve made the decision to head outdoors to train, it’s time to get some structure into your session. As a regular gym goer you’ll probably have your own routine and level you feel comfortable with, certainly an idea of what stage you’re at in terms of what you deem hard or easy. So lets pretend that this is a whole new experience and start at the beginning.

As a new client I would assess your fitness level and always start fairly easy and go up through the gears as your potential unfolds. The harder you work the faster you’ll progress. Progression can be achieved with every session, no matter how small.

Shall we begin?

We’ve started with our pulse raiser, as mentioned in my previous article Outdoor Training, this can be a run or a cycle. I would recommend about 10 mins at a nice steady pace, nothing too energy sapping as there’s plenty time for that. This is followed by a dynamic warm-up. Usually base this around what you intend to do during your session. For example, if you are planning a forward lunge set, incorporate some walking lunges into your warm-up. This ensures your legs are ready for this movement. Always keep your warm up stretches dynamic at the start. Static stretches come at the end.

Week 1: Beginner session (1 hour)
10 mins pulse raiser – Run/cycle at a light steady pace

5-8mins dynamic stretch: mark a distance, either, with cones or between two trees about 10m apart. A good range for this session would be: Heal kicks to bum, high knee run, walking lunges, high kicks (touching opposite leg with opposite hand), light squats and a two step hamstring stretch (walk two paces, bend from the hip, keeping your legs straight and sweep your hands across the ground). Follow this with some hip rotation, arm swings (in a windmill motion) and a chest stretch.

Session: 20/25 mins
We’re going to start with five exercises and do 3 sets at varying rep rates (depending on the move). After each exercise mark a distance of around 20 metres and jog there and back to your start point. As you get stronger turn your jog into a sprint raising the intensity of your workout.

1. Squat x 12 reps (run 20m and back again)

Squat: Feet shoulder width apart, relaxed stance, back in natural state. In one smooth motion bend your knees, sticking out your bum (as if about to sit on a chair), finishing with your thighs parallel to the floor.
Squat:
Feet shoulder width apart, relaxed stance, back in natural state. In one smooth motion bend your knees, sticking out your bum (as if about to sit on a chair), finishing with your thighs parallel to the floor.

2. Forward Lunge x 12 (alternate legs, 6 per leg. run)

Lunge: Large step forward, with hands on hips. Leading leg parallel to the floor with your knee at 90 degrees and nicely in line with the front of the foot. Drive back up through the heal and repeat on the opposite leg. Make sure your back leg doesn't touch the floor
Lunge:
Large step forward, with hands on hips. Leading leg parallel to the floor with your knee at 90 degrees and nicely in line with the front of the foot. Drive back up through the heal and repeat on the opposite leg. Make sure your back leg doesn’t touch the floor

3. Press-up x 12 (run)

Press-up: Body in a nice straight line, head, shoulder and bum. Arms under your shoulders. Slowly press down keeping your arms nicely tucked in and elbows pointing backwards. Keeping abs braced let the chest lightly brush the floor and push back up.
Press-up:
Body in a nice straight line, head, shoulder and bum. Arms under your shoulders. Slowly press down keeping your arms nicely tucked in and elbows pointing backwards. Keeping abs braced let the chest lightly brush the floor and push back up.

4. Mountain Climber x 12 (run)

Mountain Climber: Begin in an upright press-up position.
Mountain Climber:
Begin in an upright press-up position.
Mountain Climber: Now bring your right knee to your left elbow, with a slight twist of your torso. That's one rep. Repeat on the opposite leg
Mountain Climber:
Now bring your right knee to your left elbow, with a slight twist of your torso. That’s one rep. Repeat on the opposite leg

5. Bear Crawl (begin at start point and crawl about 20m. If you can crawl back. If too hard, one way is fine to begin with. Then run)

Bear Crawl: Drop on all fours.
Bear Crawl:
Drop on all fours.
Bear Crawl: Place one hand and opposite foot forward, walk forward changing sides as you go. The lower you go the harder it gets
Bear Crawl:
Place one hand and opposite foot forward, walk forward changing sides as you go. The lower you go the harder it gets

On completion of your first set rest for about 90 secs and go again. Take longer if needed but try not to exceed 2 mins. The aim is to cut the rest time as you progress. Once you have competed 3 sets and rested for a couple of mins, go for a light warm-down jog for about 5 mins. This is followed by our static stretch. Be sure to stretch of all the relative muscles. Start with the big muscles like the quads, hamstrings and calves. Follow that with hip flexors, groin and glutes. Finishing off with some arm stretches. Always remember to do as it helps with your recovery.

I’ve set a fairly basic rep rate for this session as it’s a good starting point. Complete your first 3 sets and see how you feel. You will be able to tell fairly quickly if you need to add more reps to each exercise or even an extra set. Don’t be scared to push it that little bit each time. Try and fit this in at least twice a week but I’d recommend 3 times.

cw
Level 3 PT- Outdoor Training Specialist.
Chris Watson

Give it a go a see how you get on.

Next time we’ll look at ways to progress your session and the benefits of this kind of training.
Chris

**Please note this programme is designed if you already have a basic level of fitness. Any medical problems or injuries please seek professional advice before attempting this session**

7 Minute Work Out

7 Minutes Is All It Takes To Make The Olympics
7 Minutes Is All It Takes To Make The Olympics

I recently read an interesting article titled “7 minutes to get fit” with the catch line “Do twice a week. Job done”. Instantly I was intrigued, fit in two 7min sessions, this ought to be good, or too good to be true. So I began to read.

Studies have found you don’t need to spend hours in the gym to achieve your fitness goals. By following a quick, tight regime you can make a big difference to your overall fitness. The 7 minute work out is a form of high intensity interval training (HIIT) which means extremely intense bursts of activity followed by brief periods of recovery. Research suggests 7 energy sapping minutes broken down into 12 exercises is comparable to a run and weights session combined.

As a strong believer in hard work and time spent in the gym, or park, I was a tad sceptical of a quick fix solution. It sounded a little like a short-cut way of getting fit and I therefore questioned its impact.

So I decided to put the 7 minute workout to the test. I selected a reasonably balanced set of exercises to begin with. Well I’ve got to say it’s a pretty tough 7 minutes. The combination of aerobic and resistance moves gave me a very
balanced and challenging workout. It has been said that HIIT has shown time and again to “deliver numerous health benefits in much less time than traditional programs”. This all sounds very intriguing and exciting but it’s time to let
the public decide.

Having tested it on myself I decided to let my clients decide if it’s a way of training they’d be interested in. I selected a couple of willing participants and designed a program based on the 7 minute workout structure. Carefully mixing
a variation of cardio and resistance movement patterns and timing each exercise at the desired 30 second length (with a 10 second reset between).

My guinea pigs, whom have a fairly good level of fitness, found the session “pretty challenging” but really enjoyed the variation and tempo, finding competing against the clock both fun and exciting. They really felt they’d worked hard and gained a lot from this way of working. As I had a full session to fill we did 3 sets of 12 exercises with a two minute rest between each set. This added another level to the challenge.

Only time will tell if the 7 minute workout will return the fitness goals we’ve set but it was certainly a good start.

See below an example of a structured session containing 12 exercises:

This way of working, I believe, is best done as part of a 3 set, 2-3 times a week routine. Doing two 7 minute workouts per week will undoubtedly improve your fitness levels but I’d suggest doing 2-3 sets twice of three times per week
(if time allows) for maximum potential. So give it a go and see how you get on. I’d be very interested to know your thoughts on this training approach and if you feel it’s working..

A little bit of advice when attempting the 7 minute workout. It’s pretty tough and only recommended if you have a fairly good base fitness due to it’s high intensity nature. If you’ve not exercised in a while then I would suggest a more gentle approach to begin with and build up to the 7 minute workout.

20131026-182636.jpg

Always concentrate on form and doing the exercise correctly and please research any moves you’re not familiar with to avoid any injury or bad habits.

Remember these exercises are all about quality and not quantity. Always focus on your form and posture.

Good luck and look forward to our next set of exercises as we progress forward.

Level 3 PT- Outdoor Training Specialist. Chris Watson
Level 3 PT- Outdoor Training Specialist. Chris Watson

**Please note this programme is designed if you already have a basic level of fitness. Any medical problems or injuries please seek professional advice before attempting this session**

Avoid HARM for acute injuries (TOP TIPS)

Avoid HARM for acute injuries

After injuring yourself it can be difficult to know what to do. Do you use, ice or heat? Rest or movement? Elevation or massage? The asnwers to these questions are found in the type of injury that you have sustained.

Image

Acute Injuries

An acute injury is an injury with a sudden onset, usually as a result of some sort of impact or trauma, such as a fall, sprain or collision. Acute injuries are sudden and sharp, occur immediately (or within hours) and cause pain (possibly severe pain). With this form of injury, two acronyms are extremely valuable to remember: RICE and HARM.

RICE

The RICE acronym is one that should be followed as the four factors help to reduce swelling and inflammation that is likely to occur within the first stages of healing for an acute injury. RICE stands for:

  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation

HARM

In contrast, the HARM acronym provides four factors that should be avoided with acute injuries, and stands for:

  • Heat
  • Alcohol
  • Running
  • Massage

HARM is extremely important to remember within the initial 48 hours following an acute injury because both heat and alcohol cause the blood vessels to dilate (open up) – this increases the bleeding in the injured area. Exercising the body part or massaging the area also has the same impact and can be detrimental to the healing process.

Chronic Injuries

Differing to acute injuries, chronic injuries can be subtle and may emerge slowly, with no known factor that triggered it. Chronic injuries may come and go, and may cause dull pain or soreness. Long standing low back pain is a classic example of a chronic injury, and often results from overuse and repetitive movements. However, if an acute injury is not effectively treated, it may lead to a chronic problem.

Heat therapy

Heat therapy is frequently used for chronic injuries or injuries that have no inflammation or swelling – such as nagging muscle or joint pain. Using a heat pad, or getting into a warm bath can help to increase the elasticity of joint connective tissues and stimulate blood flow, which can consequently aid pain relief. Whilst this is often a temporary solution, it can provide relief nonetheless.

Prodced by JB Physio and re-produced with permissions via twitter

NFL Injuries 2013/14

Hello everyone, thought id share this infographic from Wall Street Journal. It shows all the injuries sustainted fornm one season during NFL.

 

Not surprisingly the knees have taken a heavy load of the injuries, and those ankles are at high risk of injury. Looks like a slight correlations between reduced injuries and increased protective armour in that area. However, there is still plenty of shoulder and concussion injuries.

 

Enjoy the viewing.

 

Thanks
Tom

Outdoor Training Time

The Warm-up Trail

In this series of blogs we are going to take a look into the world of training outdoors with Chris Watson, an expert in outdoor personal training and conditioning. Enjoy this weeks blog:

Run! Here come the boys…

Now that summer is finally upon us and the weather seems to be picking up (hopefully) it’s time to leave the treadmill behind and get outdoors and into your local park! Don’t get me wrong I love the gym but what’s the one thing many gyms don’t have? Space! Especially during those peak hours at lunchtime and after work. No more waiting for machines or banging into people at the squat rack. So what’s so good about training outside I hear you ask? Well, it’s free, you don’t need any kit and when the sun is shinning on a summers evening there’s no better place to train. So let’s get our gear on and get outside!

First you need to identify a suitable park, preferably within running distance from work or home. Use the run there as part of your warm-up. Find a good spot, something that has a handy bench and maybe a few trees nearby. Give the area the once over, gotta check for the usual suspects, glass, stones, dog muck, etc. Now you’re ready to get stuck in. The fun bit about outdoor training is using your surroundings, get creative! Sure have a plan in your head of what you want to do during your session, but you may find a tree perfect for pull-ups or an old tree stump for box jumps or a handy bench for dips. Every park offers hidden training gold.

I have various parks where I like to train as each one offers something a little different and that’s how I structure my training session or that of my clients. For example, a typical session will consist of a light jog to said park, a dynamic warm-up then usually 5/6 exercises over 3/4 sets with varying rep rates. I’d always allow a good hour. Start with a 10min run followed by a 5min warm-up to get nicely stretched. Around 25/30 mins for your session, finishing off with a light warm down run (back). Spend at least 10mins stretching at the end. Job done!

Man of Steel…

Over the next few weeks we’ll look at the different types of sessions you could plan. Whether you have an hour or just 20 mins. The exercises you could include and the effectiveness of weight-free training for burning fat. Things you can use, goals you can set and how you can bring a bit of fun to your training.

Thanks for reading and see you next week

Chris
[level 3 PT- outdoor training specialist]

cw
Chris Watson

Enquires for PT to cdwatson1972@gmail.com

Neuromuscular Control – What does it mean???

Neuromuscular Control – What Does it mean?

Neuromuscular control is certainly a complex procedure undertaken by the body but this has been made easier to understand by Vern Gambetta, a top performance coach from the U.S. Great reading and this will certainly improve that understanding of movement.

Movement is quite simple and from that wonderful simplicity comes the complexity of sports skill and performance. Twenty-five years ago in an attempt to better explain movement and how we should effectively train movement I came up with this simple diagram I call the Performance Paradigm.
NMC
It was somewhat like what Albert Szent-Gyorgi, once said, “Discovery consists in seeing what everyone else has seen and thinking what no one else has thought.” Essentially it is the stretch shortening cycle of muscle with a more global interpretation and proprioception brought into consideration. It is the basis for what some people call the Gambetta Method; to me it is common sense. I use this to evaluate movement efficiency or deficiency and then to guide training and if necessary rehab.

Essentially all movement is interplay between force reduction and force production. The quality of the movement is dictated by our proprioceptive system. We begin movement by loading the muscles – this is the force reduction phase. Basically this is the eccentric loading phase as a well as instantaneous isometric action that lends stiffness to the muscle. This is the most important component of the performance paradigm, but probably the most overlooked as well as the most misunderstood. There are several reasons for this; the most notable being that it is less measurable. Because it is more difficult to quantify we have tended to emphasize the more measurable component, force production. It is during the force reduction phase that most injuries occur. Think landing on one leg and tearing an ACL or planting to cut and spraining an ankle. It is during this phase that gravity has its greatest impact; it is literally trying to slam the body into the ground.

Once force has been reduced the subsequent result is force production. Force production is easy to see and easy to measure. Consequently it gets an inordinate amount of attention in the training process. We see it because it is the outcome. It is how high or far we jump. It is how much we lift. But just because it is easy to see and measure does not mean it should receive the inordinate emphasis, in training that it does. It must be stressed that it is the component of the performance paradigm that is highly dependent on the other phases.

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The third component of the Performance Paradigm is proprioception. Ultimately it is the glue that binds a whole functional program together is proprioception. Proprioception is the awareness of joint position and force derived from the sense receptors in the joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. It is that component that gives quality to the movement. “The quality of movement, in part, is dependent upon neurologic information fed back from proprioceptors within muscles and joints to the higher brain centers. The information returning to the central nervous system from the periphery includes “data” concerning tension of muscle fibers, joint angles, and position of the body being moved.” Logan and McKinney (Page 62) It is the feedback mechanism that positions the limbs to be able to achieve optimum efficiency. It is a component of movement that has been all but ignored in most traditional training programs until recently. It is highly trainable, especially if it is incorporated as part of a whole program.

It is almost too simple. Perhaps to appreciate proprioception we should look at the extreme case of a stroke victim that is able to return to normal movement patterns. Why can’t an athlete who has all their capacities enhance the quality of their movement by focusing on the same things that the stroke victim has to focus on to get back to function? The key to that is proprioception. We must strive to constantly change proprioceptive demand throughout the training program in order to enhance the quality of movement.

The performance paradigm will serve as a guide to determine how we train all components. It can also serve as a very useful guide to help us to evaluate movement from a slightly different context. It should serve as a guide to be more functional in our approach by emphasizing the timing and sequence of all three components of the paradigm. The synergistic interplay between them will produce the highest quality of movement.

It is very easy to get caught in the trap of measurable strength. How much you can lift or how many foot-pounds of force you can express on a dynamometer are meaningless numbers. Functional training does not depend on measurable strength. Quality of movement, coordination and rhythm are more important. The goal is always to apply the strength that is developed in the actual sport performance. How is the force expressed? Can you produce and reduce the force? Force production is all about acceleration, but often the key to movement efficiency and staying injury free is the ability to decelerate and stabilize in order to position the body to perform efficiently. A good functional training program will work on the interplay between force production, force reduction and stabilization. The end result is functional strength

Thanks for reading, see my next post on ACL and neuromuscular control!!!

TA Physio

prehab not rehab for sport injury prevention
prehab not rehab for sport injury prevention